According to a report from Amnesty International, rival government forces and other armed groups and militias committed serious violations of international law and abuses of human rights with impunity in Libya.
All sides to the conflict carried out indiscriminate attacks and direct attacks on civilians, forcing thousands to become internally displaced and causing a humanitarian crisis.
Thousands of people continued to be detained without trial in the absence of a functioning justice system, and torture and other ill-treatment were rife.
Armed groups including Islamic State (IS) abducted, detained and killed civilians and severely curtailed the rights to freedom of expression and assembly.
Women faced discrimination and were subjected to sexual and other violence, particularly by IS.
Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants faced serious abuses, including indefinite detention and torture and other ill-treatment by the authorities, armed groups and people smugglers.
The death penalty remained in force; no executions were reported.
(Source: Amnesty International)